Forest mushrooms – why collect them?
Do you know someone who dont like to collect mushrooms? I do not know such a person, not everyone likes to eat them but the collection is a pleasure. In late summer and early autumn mushroom becomes a Polish national sport in the woods you can meet whole families looking eagerly ceps, tap or brown ring boletus. Mushroom dishes are delicious but is also healthy? What are their nutritional value and that have a positive impact on our health? If you want to know what is on the mushrooms, except for fungal pests), why eat them, how to recognize these edible and when and where to collect mushrooms invite you to read the article.
For starters’s be precise – we will deal with forest mushrooms, not grown on a large scale mushrooms, although they also contain nutritional value, but slightly less than growing wild in the woods most commonly collected species, but more on that later …
Why collect mushrooms?
Imagine Christmas Eve without the traditional dishes with mushrooms, ravioli, dumplings, cabbage with mushrooms … Of course, you can prepare all these dishes with mushrooms, but if so then they taste? Some also say that forest mushrooms can be purchased at the store, dried or frozen. Of course it’s true, but food prepared with independently collected and the dried mushrooms taste really special. If, however, such arguments do not appeal to some it must also be noted that the same mushroom has undoubtedly a positive impact on our health, a walk through the woods in search of mushrooms a few hours of motion, during which you can burn several hundred calories 🙂
Anatomy of the fungus – how to recognize edible mushrooms
Occurring in Poland fungi species of wild mushrooms you can be conventionally divided into edible mushrooms, edible and poisonous. I suppose that each of you had contact with wild mushrooms and each also heard that it is safe to pick mushrooms with tubes underneath, but this is a misconception. Among occurring in Poland fungi with tubes we have, unfortunately, also inedible and even poisonous. Below are some examples of the most frequently made mistakes while collecting mushrooms:
- Amanita phalloides highly poisonous is sometimes confused with the parasol mushroom, Tricholoma Equestre and mushrooms, especially for juveniles. Toadstool phalloides has a ring under his hat, and the throne embedded in the sheath. I would recommend picking these fungi only when you are absolutely sure what this genre, because a mistake can be fatal.
- Boletus grim – inedible, you can also find information that the fungus is poisonous only in the raw state, is often confused with the boletus ceglastoporym that is valued and tasty fungus. How to distinguish them? It is quite difficult because both species have red coloration shaft and pipes on the underside of the cap, their characteristic feature is also bruising after cutting. Upon closer examination, however, we find that the boletus dreary has a red mesh on the shaft and his hat is lighter – yellowish brown.
- Tylopilus felleus – inedible, sometimes confused with the boletus noble or bagpipe, tylopilus name comes from the bitter, acrid taste of this fungus. His eating causes very unpleasant intestinal ailments.
- Devil’s boletus- poisonous, especially in the rough, causing a strong poisoning. Boletus satanas can be confused with wild mushrooms Boletus Erythropus and Grim boletus. Like the grim boletus has a red mesh on the stem, gray hat or silver-gray, sometimes pink with darker spots. In Poland, however, it is very rare, more common in Western Europe.
- Chanterelle or “tap” very tasty fungus foliate, yellow or orange, juveniles are tucked hat elderly have frayed edge of the cap and funnel-shaped. Hen you can not go wrong with hygrophoropsis aurantiaca which is often called a „false chanterelle”. Eating hygrophoropsis aurantiaca causes abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. How to distinguish hen from hygrophoropsis? Several features to avoid confusion can be found in the table below:
|Gills yellow, rare, stiff||Thick, thin orange plaque|
|Plaques occur on the core||Plaques do not overlap the core, ending at the base of the cap|
|Thicker, stiff shaft||Thin, flexible shaft|
As you can see inedible and poisonous mushrooms we find also among fungi tubular. Less experienced mushroom pickers should not therefore gather lamellar mushrooms and fungi tubular reddish shaft or tube.
How to gather mushrooms?
A few basic principles which we should follow when picking mushrooms:
- We only collect mushrooms healthy, with no signs of mold or rot.
- We only collect mushrooms that we know well, we never collect mushrooms old, we are not able to recognize.
- We do not collect from the forest fungi or fungal fragments left by other mushroom pickers.
- Mushrooms collect the basket, never in a plastic bag.
- Mushrooms cut off right on the ground, not cast off, not destroy the mycelium, which is located below the surface.
- Mushrooms We dry or processed immediately after bringing home.
How to dry mushrooms?
As everyone knows fungi not eaten raw, to prepare them delicious dishes need to be pre-dried, boil, fry or marinate. To begin with, they do not wash mushrooms for drying, so mushrooms purify fragments litter, then cut, throw the worm and threading through a needle on a thread, hang in a ventilated area. Ideally for a few days to observe whether from our collections are not wormy (sometimes you do not notice when peeling) if the mushrooms are some unwanted tenants need to carefully examine mushrooms and discard those which contain larvae. Before packing you need to check whether the mushrooms are dried thoroughly, if the fungus does not break is still wet, if you crumble it means that dried-is. Fungi also may be dried with a dryer for fruits and mushrooms and an electric oven (at the beginning dry it at a temperature of approx. 40 ° C, then increasing the temperature to about 70 40 ° C). Dried mushrooms translate into tightly sealed jars or bags made of linen or cotton.
Forest meat – nutritional value of mushrooms
Among those collecting mushrooms you can often hear the statement that collect mushrooms only because of their taste and aroma because the mushrooms have no nutritional value. Currently, edible mushrooms are of interest to many research centers, but their properties and effects on the human body have been known for thousands of years. In ancient Egypt, the mushrooms were eaten only by the pharaohs because it was believed that they are too valuable for ordinary mortals, China and Japan mushrooms were and still are used in folk medicine. In Europe, the health benefits of mushrooms were described for the first time by Hippocrates already 400 years BC. Currently, mushrooms are very popular mainly because of the aroma and taste, numerous studies have shown, however, that they are the source of the following nutrients:
- Vitamin B
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin A
- iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium
- The protein, which is very well absorbed, about 90% (because they are called forest meat), it is worth noting that the protein in fungi are known. essential amino acids that is such that our body does not produce
- Dietary fibers (cellulose, lignin, chitin) with similar properties to the fiber
- A small amount of fat acids (fatty acids) 2-8% of healthy are dominated strongly unsaturated fatty AIDS
Most nutrients fungi maintain the appropriate drying or freezing.
More and more research is focused on the values of medicinal mushrooms, confirmed so the impact on the immune system, cholesterol levels, property agents, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant. Many species of mushrooms demonstrates anti-cancer activity, including our native Boletus edulis.
Fungi are already many scientists considered part of functional foods, that such should be part of the normal diet and can be consumed regularly and in addition can lower the risk of developing certain diseases. However, keep in mind that mushrooms should not eat children under three years of age and people allergic to them.